Sunday, July 26, 2020

Huge Gulf Revealed in Private State Oxbridge Entry

Huge Gulf Revealed in Private State Oxbridge Entry The OE Blog Long-awaited figures revealed this week finally showed for the first time the rates of Oxbridge entry on a school-by-school basis. The shocking statistics unveil an enormous divide between state school and private school entry, with just five schools sending more pupils to Oxbridge over a three year period than nearly 2000 others put together. Those five include elite private schools Eton, Westminster, and St Paul’s Girls and Boys. The figures, released by the Sutton Trust charity, were most shocking because they revealed that the private schools getting vastly greater numbers of pupils into Oxbridge often had very similar A-level results to corresponding state schools with much lower levels of Oxbridge entry. Old Oxbridge Excuses Disproved It has long been the defence of Oxford and Cambridge Universities that the reason for their poor state: private pupil ratio is not their own admissions process, but a failure on the part of the state school system to provide students with high enough A level grades to win Oxbridge places. Yet this data blows that long-accepted argument out of the picture, provoking a high level of concern about private school bias in the Oxbridge admissions system. The data showed that for schools with an average of 851-900 A-level points per student (900 points being equivalent to 3 ‘A’ grades), 50% of private school pupils gained places at “highly selective universities” compared to just 32% from state schools. Oxbridge Admissions The figures raise serious questions about the Oxbridge interview process. Admissions tutors claim to look vigilantly for signs of promise from state school pupils who may not have achieved quite as highly as their independent school peers. Instead the charity’s findings seem to suggest that private school pupils, drilled and prepared to perfection with hours of one-to-one interview practice, are given an unfair advantage over state school pupils who have achieved the same A-level grades. Is it as Bad as it Sounds? There are two important mitigating factors to be considered when analysing the data collected by the Sutton Trust. The first is that the data showed that independent schools with higher Oxbridge success rates also put in a greater number of applications than their similarly achieving state counterparts. This might shift the cause of the discrepancy away from the Oxbridge admissions tutors and onto the state school system, where bright applicants are perhaps less encouraged to apply for top universities than they might be. The second discrepancy, vociferously pointed out by the elite Russell Group of Universities, and supported by Professor Anna Vignoles from the Institute of Education, is that despite having a similar grade-point average, schools may still have vastly different grades per pupil, which could affect Oxbridge entry chances. For example, one school with an 851-900 point average may have a handful of excellent pupils with fantastically high grades, with the rest achieving much lower, whilst another school with the same average may have a more consistent group of average results, thereby getting fewer pupils into Oxbridge. It is also true that many state school pupils are less clearly informed about the importance of avoiding ‘soft’ subjects like business studies and photography at A-level, which could account for high grades but fewer Oxbridge places. However, the enormity of the state: private school Oxbridge divide is such that even taking these discrepancies into account in no way negates the statistics; it merely lessens the gap. As Vignoles admits; “In our research not all of that gap disappears even when you account for subject and choice at A-level”. These damning revelations come at the worst possible time for the government, just as they are desperately fighting to insist that their new £9000 tuition fees policy will not disadvantage students from poorer backgrounds in getting to university. Amidst accusations of a rich-biased new policy that will send higher education “back into the dark ages” with the return of the old university: polytechnic divide, these figures should be taken very seriously indeed.

Friday, May 22, 2020

Diversity and Difference in Early Childhood Essay

TOPIC: Diversity and Difference in Early Childhood Education Personal interest: My first awareness of racial identity and diversity occurred when I was in Year 3. Having being raised acknowledging acceptance of people of racial or cultural difference my thoughts of children of colour were positive and impartial. However, one day a boy in my class of Sri Lankan descent got into trouble with another student, but only the Sri Lankan boy was asked to go to the principal’s office. During our lunch break he came over to a group of us and told us that he thought he was the one that got into trouble ‘because he was ‘black’’. I remember thinking to myself, ‘why would he get into trouble just because he was black?’ It was in fact that both boys†¦show more content†¦One of the most stimulating aspects of early education is observing and supporting young children as they develop their individual identities. This development takes place within different social contexts where issues relating to human diversity and differe nce impact significantly on children’s understandings and ways of being in the world. Arguably, our education begins when we are first able to detect causes and consequences, and continue to form the basis of our identity, behaviours and knowledge of the world around us. Glover (1991) in the early 1990s found that as 2-3 year old children became aware of difference they simultaneously develop positive and negative feelings about the differences they observe. For example, racial awareness impacts on their perceptions of skin colour and on their preferences in the social relationships they initiate and foster with other children. An Australian study conducted by Palmer (1990) exemplifies how preschool children were able to make negative judgements based on racial characteristics of young Aboriginal children. Children were reportedly saying ‘You’re the colour of poo†¦ Did your mum drop you in the poo?’ This observation suggests that children as young as 2 years old are becoming aware of diversity and differences of others, and these judgements children are making are often affecting their ability to make sound judgements of othersShow MoreRelatedChildren With Multicultural And Diverse Experiences849 Words   |  4 PagesIntroduction Early childhood providers do many difficult tasks. The hardest task is to provide the children with multicultural and diverse experiences. Since the beginning of time, the extended families, clans, and the communities raised the young children. Even today, many early childhood programs and family child care institutions tend to be similar and homogeneous to the children’s home backgrounds. The common criteria parents use to choose the early childhood programs, and the child care facilitiesRead MoreFor The Past Two Decades, Canadian Population Is Increasingly1439 Words   |  6 Pagesidentities and strengths for almost a hundred and fifty years. It is essential to make sure that all citizens acknowledge both similarities and differences in Canadian diverse society. Especially, children have experienced more challenges due to the current age of cultural pluralism because they are born from refugee or immigration’s families. Therefore, early childhood education is respons ible to create multicultural practices that benefits young children to their cognitive and social developments, andRead MoreReflection On Early Childhood Education1198 Words   |  5 Pagesreflect on the past eight weeks, my insights on Early Childhood Education have given me a better understanding of issues and trends in Early Childhood Education. As I mastered this course, I have also become more knowledgeable and understanding of the needs of children and families in my community. Another way that I have been strengthened was through discussions and sharing blogs with my colleagues. On the other hand, researching professional early childhood education topics and viewing multimedia presentationsRead MoreEarly Childhood Educators Promote Diversity, And As A Result Improve Academic Outcomes1413 Words   |  6 Pagesfor educators to provide support to different family structures increases. This review will examine strategies utilized by early childhood educators to promote diversi ty, and as a result improve academic outcomes. Most data related to diversity in the classroom is derived from research in pre-school and Head Start programs. Although there are other avenues for early childhood education, including home-based and center-based childcare, this research will focus on pre-K and Head Start. Literature Review:Read MoreMulticultural Curriculum For A Multicultural Classroom1425 Words   |  6 Pagescommunicate with parents. The purpose of this paper is to inform our readers of how a multicultural education benefits children. How can teachers create a multicultural learning community, and how can teachers help guide children to observe and practice diversity in the classroom? As a teacher, I have learned that our framework influences the way that we think and how we deal and interact with people. Our framework makes us un conscience towards other cultures. When someone s culture is different from oursRead MoreEnglish Child Diversity1361 Words   |  6 PagesNew Zealand being a multi-cultural and a diverse country, the early childhood sector here, embraces this diversity and encourages professionals of this sector to respect this diversity of the children and families that they serve (Ministry of Education[MoE], 1996; Noonan, 2010). There are many children who start child-care/kindergarten for whom English is not their first/home language (Clarke, 2009). Early childhood professionals working with these children need to actively respond to their needsRead MoreEducating Children With Essential Cognitive Development757 Words   |  4 PagesCurriculums Fostering Social Development Early childhood education programs provide children with essential cognitive development. These programs also foster social development. Children can learn the social rules for interacting with other children; for example, how to share their toys. Erikson’s theory is different from Piaget’s theory. â€Å"Erikson’s view is that the social environment combined with biological maturation provides each individual with a set of ‘crises’ that must be resolved† (HuittRead MoreEarly Childhood Education Is Supplying The Children s Marketplace During Identity Development858 Words   |  4 Pagesan educator enters a classroom they do so with tools aimed towards giving students an education. Along with a degree is a copy of the Australian Curriculum ([AC], 2015) and the Early Years Learning Framework ([EYLF], 2015); however, what is important for the educator to perceive is that an important part of early childhood education is supplying the childrenà ¢â‚¬â„¢s ‘marketplace’ during identity development. According to Siraj-Blatchford and Clarke (2004, p. 23) the effects of gender, culture and socioRead MoreSocial Justice Should Be Taught1684 Words   |  7 Pageslanguage, which they perpetuate through their play and talk (Ryan Grieshaber 2004). Preschool is an especially important time to begin social justice work, as it is when children are actively beginning to construct difference. Social Justice should be taught and implemented in Early Childhood to help children’s self-perspective, the way that they view others and Race and culture should be addressed but some other things that are often overlooked and are just as important are age, special needs and genderRead MoreSimilarities and Differences between Reggio Emilia and High Scope1681 Words   |  7 PagesThere are many different curriculums that are used in early childhood classrooms. Two curriculums that are used are High Scope and Reggio Emilia. Both of these curriculums have unique aspects that make up their curriculums. In addition, High Scope and Reggio Emilia have similarities and differences. In Ypsilanti, Michigan Dr. David P. Weikard created High Scope in 1970. High Scope does research in a variety of areas. However, they are best known for their research in preschool education and

Friday, May 8, 2020

The Movie Freedom Writers Erin Gruwell Essay - 850 Words

Summary The movie Freedom Writers is about Erin Gruwell who is starting her first year as an English teacher at Woodrow Wilson High School. This school is racially divided with many gangs and violence erupting at any time. Ms. Gruwell was the students main subject of hate too. After having a discussion with her students about what they were feeling about their lives and situations, she took the responsibility of educating the students no matter what the cost was. She would eventually get through to the teens by passing out journals for them to write their personal life stories in. As the year went on, the students started to trust Ms.Gruwell. The next academic year, she had the students getting along with one another and reading The Diary of Ann Frank. She faced many critics within the school, but she ultimately succeeded. Teacher Ms. Gruwell was more dedicated and determined than the other teachers at Woodrow Wilson High School. Even though she was warned by other faculty and staff members, she went in with an unbiased opinion of the students in her class. She led the classroom by not showing her frustrations when something went wrong or if a fight broke out. Instead of complaining about the lack of resources that the school provided her with, she found ways to get it herself by working more jobs. In order for her to lead the classroom, she tried to find common ground between her and the students. She tried to make them feel comfortable with her as their teacher. HerShow MoreRelatedFreedom Writers Critique1679 Words   |  7 PagesThe Freedom Writers   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Freedom Writers was released in 2007 on January 7. It was based on the book the Freedom Writers Diary by Erin Gruwell, who wrote the story based on a school name Woodrow Wilson Classical High School in Eastside Long Beach, California. This film tells a story about Erin Gruwell, who is a young teacher who just started her job as a freshman and sophomore English teacher at Woodrow Wilson High School. She is soon challenged by a group of Black, Latino and Asian gang membersRead MoreFreedom Writers : Film Review1085 Words   |  5 PagesFreedom Writers Film Review But even an ordinary secretary Or a housewife or a teenager Can, within their own small ways, Turn on a small light in a dark room. - Miep Gies Just like how Erin Gruwell (Hilary Swank) turned the lights on, in the dark room of 203. Freedom Writers is a film inspired by students of Woodrow Wilson High School as they experience the aftermath of LA riots. Los Angeles resembles a war zone back in the 1992. During this time in America, it all comes down to what a person lookRead MoreThe Freedom Writers1584 Words   |  7 PagesIntroduction Freedom Writers is a drama based on the book â€Å"The freedom writers’ diary† by Erin Gruwell and her students at the Woodrow Wilson Classical High School in California. The book is an agglomeration of the writings of these students, inspired by their teacher, to write about the experiences they had to undergo due to the racial tensions and violence existing in the society. The movie is an enrapturing representation of the way in which a teacher revolutionizes the process of classroom teachingRead MoreFreedom Writers By Jung Ah Choi1010 Words   |  5 Pagesindividual demonstrates their learning process. â€Å"Reading Educational Philosophies in Freedom Writers† by Jung-Ah Choi, breaks down the different methods of teaching through the film Freedom Writers. Freedom Writers is a film based on a true story about a young teacher, Erin Gruwell, who faces racial barriers at an integrated high school in Long Beach California. The article displays the teaching methods used by Gruwell in order to help her students face their academic struggles that are obstructed byRead MoreMovies Such As The â€Å"Freedom Writers (Lagravenese, 2007)†1661 Words   |  7 PagesMovies such as the â€Å"Freedom Writers (LaGravenese, 2007)† and â€Å"Precious Knowledge (Palos, 2011)† both support the central theme of discrimination and race within a school system. The students in both movies come from backgrounds experiencing poverty, gangs, and violence experiencing discrimination and the lack of support for their education, but overcome the stereotypes and battles to gain access to receiving their education at their fullest potential. Each movie involves students that were guidedRead MoreFreedom Writers Analysis Paper786 Words   |  4 Pa gesFreedom Writers Analysis Over the years, I had heard many positive things said about this movie, but yet I had never taken the time to rent the movie and watch it myself. That is why I am so glad that this movie was our assignment. Freedom writers far exceeded my expectations. It truly was touching to see an adaptation of real live stories come to play. Watching a young woman, a teacher, who was completely out of her element and her comfort zone, grow to actually take an interest in these kids thatRead MoreRacial Conflicts1152 Words   |  5 Pagesthe equality of every human causes racism. Humans need laws to follow and the lack of these laws cause conflict between humans. Erin Gruwell was optimistic about teaching a class of so many different backgrounds but it was much more challenging to get through to such angry teenagers. Racial conflicts in America include gang violence, and even murder. The Freedom Writers movie gives a clear description of the life that every teenager has to go through while there a re racial conflicts. In that environmentRead MoreThe Freedom Writers, Newly Licensed High School1679 Words   |  7 PagesIn the movie â€Å"The Freedom Writers, newly licensed high school teacher Erin Gruwell is teaching a large group of students who are different in race and ethnicity and are participants and/or indirectly affected by gang violence in L.A. The name Freedom Writers is a name given to her students by which they were inspired by the Freedom Riders activists in the Civil Rights Movement in the 1960s. The film is based on the true story of Woodrow Wilson High School in L.A. that has given up on students suchRead MoreFilm Analysis on Freedom Writers2290 Words   |  10 PagesFilm Analysis Essay on Freedom Writers Main Credits Title: Freedom Writers Director: Richard LaGravenese Scriptwriter: Richard LaGravenese Adapted from: The Freedom Writers Diary by Erin Gruwell Actors/Main characters: Hilary Swank-Erin Gruwell, Patrick Dempsey-Scott Casey, Scott Glenn-Steve Gruwell, Imelda Staunton-Margaret Campbell, April L. Hernandez-Eva Benitez, Jaclyn Ngan-Sindy, Jason Finn-Marcus, John Benjamin Hickey- Brian Gelsord, Plot Summary The movie â€Å"Freedom Writers† is based on a trueRead MoreRhetorical Analysis Of Freedom Writers1507 Words   |  7 PagesFreedom Writers is a movie based on the book The Freedom Writers Diary by teacher Erin Gruwell. The movie was directed by Richard LaGravenese and it was released in 2007. This movie discusses significant themes such as stereotyping and racial discrimination but most important the power of tolerance and understanding. The purpose of this movie is to promote the message that knowledge is power and in a world filled with disparities where hundreds of ethnic groups convey and interact humans are obliged

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Conservatism Is Merely A Ruling Class Ideology Free Essays

Conservatism has three strands: Traditional, New Right and Post New right conservatism. It serves in the interest of the rich and powerful and it serves in the interest of every social class, including the poor. Marxists in particular would argue that conservatism is a class based ideology. We will write a custom essay sample on Conservatism Is Merely A Ruling Class Ideology or any similar topic only for you Order Now They would also argue that ideologies reflect the interest of a particular class. Burke was a traditional conservative and he believed in the organic state. Traditional conservatives are motivated by the organic state they believe that the society is a living entity, rather than a mechanism. They consider society as a pyramid and command structure, which serves in the interest of the rich because society is fixed and the rich will always be at the top. Society can never have social equality because of hierarchy. They do not believe in meritocracy and individualism, they believe that society is more important than the individual, therefore they believe in collectivism. People may believe that the ideology is good but in reality it is not because people do not have rights they have duties and conservatives only recognize equality of status. Socialists believe in economic equality, this is the only equality that does not keep people down. Conservatism was reaction against Liberalism (French revolution). Burke was against the French revolution. Disraeli was also motivated by class interest. He introduced One-nation conservatism, which was about keeping social cohesion between the rich and the poor. Disraeli gave the vote to the urban working class male because if he did not the Liberals would have done so. Burke once said that he ‘the palace is not safe when the cottage is not happy’ meaning that the rich are not happy when the poor are not satisfied. If the poor is not satisfied then there will not be social stability, because there will be a revolution. Burke introduced social reforms to stop a revolution. Randolph Churchill formulated ‘Tory democracy’ which stated that in order to gain the support of the working-class they have to develop the empire by making them believe in it. They did not want to do too much for the poor, but rather to help them enough to keep them happy. Conservatives voted against the NHS, which was brought in by Labour, because it is a ruling class ideology. They only decided to accept the NHS because they are pragmatic and they did not believe in nationalized industries because it took power away for the poor. They believed in the mixed economy. They disliked nationalization and wanted to privatize most nationalized businesses. They introduced the minimum wage and it was popular and a vote winner. In 1979, Thatcher became Prime Minister and she also served the interest of the rich. She privatized industries such as British telecom, British railways. Liberal New right believed in and rolling back the state, hence the belief in laissez-faire economics. They believed in the non-interventionist state, that the state will not intervene in the economy to help the poor. For example: the Battle of Orgreaves, the miner’s strike; the government refused to subsidize what they called the uneconomic picks. Thatcher setup grant maintained schools which got more money. Schools were a two tier system and the ‘better-off’ benefited from this. This basically suggests that Thatcher reeks of the rich. Society was more differential because people had more respect. Disraeli introduced one-nation conservatism, and he was genuinely concerned about the poor, evidenced in his quote, ‘there is a gap between the rich and the poor’ and his Crystal Palace speech. Disraeli detested capitalism because it creates inequality and exploits workers. He did what he had to do to stop a revolution, the invention of One-nation. Burke believed in the organic state and this was not just about the rich and the poor, as a traditional conservative he believed that everyone should be valued equally. The whole of the ideology was paternalistic meaning that conservatism like a father cares for the people, not just in the interest of the rich. This is confirmed in the quote, â€Å"Society is a partnership between†¦ † it suggests that we are all valuable. All traditional conservatives believe in social reforms because of the rule of One-nation. In Harold Macmillan’s ‘Middle Way’ (1938), he advocates the mixed economy. After the WWII, they realized that there was a new way to help the poor by accepting the welfare state, they also accepted Keynesianism by reflate the economy. Conservatives were very Keynes on grammar school, after all Thatcher went to a Grammar school. As Liberal New right Thatcher believed I meritocracy, individualism and embourgeoisement. Individualism means you can make it and meritocracy means that you can make it on merit. For example, selling councils houses; buying it means that it is now our property, owned democracy. People could buy shares, share owning democracy, not just the rich and the powerful, but also the poor. Post-New right, neo-liberal leaders: Hague, Smith, Major, Howard and Cameron, all have business interest. Cameron has adopted and fused neo-liberalism with elements of One-nation. Cameron believes in social responsibility. This means that society has to work together to look after and care for each other, however if we care for each other the government will not help us. For example: Jamie Oliver; it was not the government that improved school dinners. Social responsibility is a way of saying ‘rolling back the state’, Cameron uses One-nation rhetoric, though he still wants a smaller state, he does not want to regulate the state. He wants to take politicians out of the NHS. He fused neo-liberal elements and one-nation because he cares about the economy, example targeting families who have to pay child-minders; instead they pay money to family relatives to look after your children. This is One-nation because keeps social cohesion. In 1979, the working-class voted Thatcher in because in 1983, the Conservatives promised that people could buy council houses and Labour said they would nationalize the banks. Thatcher would win because she had taken on the Falklands war and found victory. How to cite Conservatism Is Merely A Ruling Class Ideology, Papers

Tuesday, April 28, 2020

The last of the mohicans Analysis Essay Example For Students

The last of the mohicans Analysis Essay In The Last of the Mohicans by James Fenimore Cooper, historical romance is apparent through settings, characters and plots. Cooper is considered by many critics to be the father of the American historical romance. Fred Lewis Patee said, â€Å"Not only was Cooper the pioneer (of the historical romance) in America, and thus worthy of the highest praise, but in many respects his romances have never been surpassed.† (212) Cooper celebrated the creative spirit of the individual and had a deep appreciation for nature. He was a romantic who enjoyed the mysteriousness and exoticness of the frontier. He favored the use of emotions over reason. Through his romantic writings, Cooper is able to captivate the reader and led them on journey through his imaginary world. We will write a custom essay on The last of the mohicans Analysis specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now The setting in The Last of the Mohicans exhibits Cooper’s historical romantic writing. The novel takes place in the American frontier. It is a place of â€Å"†¦wild and virgin nature.† (Roundtree 52) The immense beauty and threat of danger from its’ terrain creates an exotic impression on the reader. The mystique of the frontier entices the reader and allows their imagination to soar. Fred Lewis Pattee expresses his feelings on the use of the setting in â€Å"The Historical Romance: Cooper’s The Last of the Mohicans,† when he says:At every step throughout the romance the reader finds himself in dim, mysterious forests that stretch on every side into the unknown. All of the nameless thrills of a wild life under the open sky sweeps over him. In some mysterious way Cooper makes us feel his environments, and catch to the full all that they hold of mystery and romance. It is a new world that he takes us into, with a language all its own. We are perm itted to learn the alphabet of this language†¦ We are taught to catch the sounds of wild life in the woods; and we tremble to feel that perhaps all about us are malignant beings from whom it is impossible to hide†¦ His descriptions are in reality lyric poems. (213)Cooper’s descriptions of the natural scenery is picturesque and striking. (Parkmam 194) Cooper describes the frontier so vividly that the reader feels transported into the novel. Through his descriptive writings of nature, Cooper shows his deepened appreciation of nature. His descriptions create â€Å"†¦an atmosphere that is vast and satisfying.† (Pattee 212) Cooper, like most romantic writers, writes about an unspoiled America. (Magill 447) He writes about the comely Glenn Falls and the pure forest. He brings the reader into his unblemished world, where everything is pure. The setting in The Last of the Mohicans shows Cooper’s deepened appreciation of nature. Romanticism is also seen in the characters in the novel. The characters are manifestly impossible. (Pattee 212) Hawkeye is one of these impossible characters. He is an ideal character who is pure and untainted by the corruption of society. Hawkeye, like Cooper, is a romantic in that he has a deep respect for nature. Cooper uses Hawkeye to celebrate the creative spirit of the individual. Hawkeye, Chingachgook and Uncas are characters all folklores are about. They are the heroes that complete impossible task to help others. Cooper also portrays, in his novel, the stiff upper-class society and their true desire to escape to the frontier. (Magill 448) Cora and Alice represent the stiff, elegant society. The reader soon sees that under their refined life, they have a wanting to be â€Å"freed† from their upper-class society. They want to escape this boring life and be allowed to live. They see the frontier as this pure, beautiful place where they can be freed of the control of thei r society. (448) Cooper uses characters to portray his romanticism. .uf44777f88785da6f0e9ed6968643c80b , .uf44777f88785da6f0e9ed6968643c80b .postImageUrl , .uf44777f88785da6f0e9ed6968643c80b .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .uf44777f88785da6f0e9ed6968643c80b , .uf44777f88785da6f0e9ed6968643c80b:hover , .uf44777f88785da6f0e9ed6968643c80b:visited , .uf44777f88785da6f0e9ed6968643c80b:active { border:0!important; } .uf44777f88785da6f0e9ed6968643c80b .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .uf44777f88785da6f0e9ed6968643c80b { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .uf44777f88785da6f0e9ed6968643c80b:active , .uf44777f88785da6f0e9ed6968643c80b:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .uf44777f88785da6f0e9ed6968643c80b .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .uf44777f88785da6f0e9ed6968643c80b .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .uf44777f88785da6f0e9ed6968643c80b .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .uf44777f88785da6f0e9ed6968643c80b .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .uf44777f88785da6f0e9ed6968643c80b:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .uf44777f88785da6f0e9ed6968643c80b .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .uf44777f88785da6f0e9ed6968643c80b .uf44777f88785da6f0e9ed6968643c80b-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .uf44777f88785da6f0e9ed6968643c80b:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: The Giver EssayRomanticism can also be seen in The Last of the Mohicans in the plot. Cooper’s plots favor emotions over reasons. Cooper opens the novel with a historical atmosphere. However, this does not last for long. The reader is soon divulged into a world of Cooper’s imagination. In â€Å"The Historical Romance: Cooper’s Last of the Mohicans’,† Fred Lewis Pattee says this of Cooper’s use of historical background:The romancer uses the past for a background; he creates about his characters an atmosphere that seems to the reader to be like that of some far-distant period; he may even introduce historic personages and historic sce nes, but his work is not history. It is the dream of a poet over the pages of his history. (212)Cooper celebrates the creative spirit by creating an intense plot that captivates the reader. This intensity can be seen in the novel when Alice, Cora, and Major Duncan set out for Fort Henry on the secret route. A dangerous character named Magua leads them. The reader knows that Magua was previously punished severely by the girl’s father. This situation creates a feeling of apprehension for the reader. The reader does not use reason and question why this dangerous character would be chosen to led them, but is filled with suspense as these seemingly innocent characters are put into jeopardy. Cooper keeps the plot movement swift and full of urgency. This technique gives the reader hardly any times to question seriously why Munro’s daughters would push forward their visit at this worst of times and would feel safer almost alone on a dangerous path in savage territory than in t he company of several hundred trained fighting men. (Hart 103) From this early scene, Cooper’s dramatic irony is able to make the readers forget reason and be taken into Cooper’s romantic world through emotions. Cooper keeps the readers in awe by intriguing them with his stories of heroism and fighting. Critic Fred Lewis Pattee calls the novel a â€Å"book of rescues in the nick of time.† (212) This nick of time rescue can be seen when Hawkeye, Chingachgook, and Uncas save Alice and Cora on the summit of a mountain. (212) As one of the Huron Indians raises his knife to kill Heyward, Hawkeye fires his rifle to save the girls. This last minute rescue is not logical to the reader. However, the reason is not questioned because the reader is engrossed in the emotions from the chase scene.Cooper portrays his characters to do impossible feats. His plots favor emotions over reason. James Fenimore Cooper captivates the reader by his use of a romantic plot. James Fenimore Cooper is considered by many to be the father of the American literary movement. His writings put American literature on the level of the distinguished European literature. His romanticism was seen through plots, settings, and characters. Through these techniques, Cooper was able to express his romanticism in a new American way that still fascinates critics all over the world today. James Fenimore Cooper is one of the greatest American literary figures the world has ever seen. Word Count (1033)

Thursday, March 19, 2020

To what extent was Hitler a weak dictator Research Paper Example

To what extent was Hitler a weak dictator Research Paper Example To what extent was Hitler a weak dictator Paper To what extent was Hitler a weak dictator Paper For many reasons Hitler could be described as weak dictator because he failed to control all aspects of the NSDAP effectively largely down to his lazy attitude. This is a view put forward by the structuralist school of thought. However, there is also evidence from intentionalist school of thought that all the major decisions came about from Hitlers decision, such as the outbreak of war in 1939, the Night of the Long Knives in 1934 and the final solution in 1941. Therefore, Hitler could be seen as a very strong and effective dictator. Therefore, both sides of the argument have to be analysed to discover the strength of his dictatorship. In the Nazi state, Hitler made all laws. His power was unlimited and was granted the position of Fuehrer for life. He was the Commander-In-Chief of the armed forces, leader of the Government and Head of State. This was known as Fuehrer power. The Hitler myth was created by Goebbels and Hitler was seen as political genius who had been destined to be great since birth. The German people became devoted to him and even during the lowest points of the war Hitler had the vast support of the German public, which highlights his power. The party was organised around Hitler as a pyramid, with Hitler at the top of the Nazi hierarchy, followed by 36 Gauleiters or district leaders including high-ranking Nazis such as Hermann Goring and Joseph Goebbels. All laws came from either Hitler signing the decree or from Hitlers orders and he had the final say in any dispute. Similarly all the major decisions came about from Hitlers decision, such as the outbreak of war in 1939, the Night of the Long Knives in 1934 and the Final Solution in 1941, therefore, suggesting that Hitler was a strong dictator. However, it is unconceivable that one man could be in charge of the entire government like Fuehrer power suggests. This meant that Hitler had to rely heavily on other leading Nazis such as Goering, Goebbels and Himmler. In recent years, historians have begun to see a different image of Hitler, compared to the view of Hitler in Nazi Germany. One historian wrote Hitler was unwilling to take decisions, frequently uncertain, exclusively concerned with upholding his prestige and personal authority, influenced in the strongest fashion by his current entourage, in some respects a weak dictator. These structuralists believe that Hitler forsook everyday government business for an indolent life instead paying little attention to the running of the country. He hated committees and gradually removed the government cabinets. These were the traditional methods of running the country. In 1933, the cabinet met 72 times, while in 1935 just 12 times and it was removed by 1938. Rather than concentrating on the problems the party faced, Hitler would immerse himself in pet projects such as architecture. Albert Speer, who redesigned much of Berlin in the Nazi regime described how adjutants often asked me: please dont show any plans today', depicting this latest view of Hitler. This idleness gives an insight into why the Nazi government was so disorganised. Decisions throughout the party were all attributed to the will of the fuehrer and were made by Nazi officials following Hitler around and picking up on his rambling. At every level of the party there was rivalry for power and many were doing the same job as each other. Even at the very top of the hierarchy the four main Nazis behind Hitler Goering, Goebbels, Roehm and Himmler had an intense rivalry for power each trying to out do each other to increase their power. An example of this is Himmler and Goering plotting to remove Ernst Roehm from power leading up to the Night of the Long Knives, by complying a file claiming Roehm was be paid by the French to remove Hitler. Another example is that Goebbels inspired Krystalnacht. However, despite this heated competition, Hitler managed to hold the party together adding weight to the intentionalist claim that Hitler was a strong dictator, although it could be argued that it was a weakness that allowed the personal empires to grow, possibly threatening his position, for example Roehm before the Night of the Long Knives. The battle for power could also be attributed to Hitlers desire for Social Darwinism throughout the party so it would always be strong. Hitler believed that things would sort themselves out without interference and this can be seen in his policy with conquered countries during the war. Rather than tell Nazis in the respective countries how they should run the country, he just told them that in ten years time, the country must be Nazified, again showing that Hitlers running of the government was largely haphazard indicating his weakness as a dictator. The Night of the Long Knives is a good example of how Hitler was a strong dictator. The Night of the Long Knives was a very successful and efficient way of removing the enemies of the party, organised by Hitler. In that single night, Hitler managed to remove all power from a potential rival to his power the SA, who had been causing trouble threatening Hitlers support from the established German society and Ernst Rohm who was encouraging a second revolution. It also gained the support of the army, which would be vital for the establishment of a totalitarian state and future foreign policy and expansion. However, this event also shows Hitlers failing as a dictator. That fact that Hitler allowed the SA to get out of hand shows that he was a very ineffective dictator. It can also be said that Hitler had very little to do with the Night of the Long Knives. Going and Goebbels organised the attack by complying a dossier on Rohm and persuaded Hitler to act against his long time friend. Various sources suggest that Hitler was in fact reluctant to act. The intentionalist view of Hitler could also be challenged. Structuralists believe the Third Reich was largely down to a nationalist movement. Therefore, it can be seen why German intentionalists would be willing to blame all the atrocities of the war on a dead leader, claiming they had to obey, absolving all blame from themselves. In the early years of the Nazi party, Hitler can be seen as a strong dictator who played a vital part in their rise to power. However, as time progressed he can be seen as indolent and heavily reliable on his inner circle of Nazis. Power seemed to rest with the individuals who chased personal power for example Himmler, who elevated himself up the party hierarchy. There are various examples of Hitler being inspired on particular products, but many sources describe that this enthusiasm was rare and for the majority of the time Hitler was very idle and the inner circle of Nazis did the work of the party. Evidence suggests that from the mid 1930s onwards, Hitler was merely a figurehead for propaganda as he was worshiped by the public and although he had unlimited power, he rarely used it.

Tuesday, March 3, 2020

Seiridium Cankers on Leyland Cypress

Seiridium Cankers on Leyland Cypress My Leyland cypress hedge has Seiridium unicorne canker fungus. The photo you see is one of many Leylands in my yard. I often regret my decision to plant the species but I also wish I had reviewed this material before I planted Underneath that spot of dead foliage is a seiridium canker, also called coryneum canker, and is a big problem on Leyland cypress (Cupressocyparis leylandii) trees. The fungus will destroy the cypress form and cause eventual death if not controlled. Seiridium canker is usually localized on individual limbs and should be removed immediately.   If you control this situation early, you can improve the condition of the tree and its future outcome. If you leave it for another day, you will regret it. Fungal spores from an active canker are often washed down the tree or splashed from tree to tree by rain or overhead irrigation.  New infections develop when spores lodge in bark cracks and wounds and this process quickly overwhelms the tree. Disease Description: So, seiridium canker fungus is a major problem owners of Leyland cypress, especially in the southeastern United States. Cankers can be identified as sunken, dark brown or purplish patches on limb bark and there us usually excessive resin flow from the patch. It should be recognized that resin flow can occur from the branches and stems of trees that do not have the disease. Other diseases like Botryosphaeria cankers, Cercospora needle blight, Phytophthora and Annosus root rots can have very similar characteristics. Be careful not to use resin flow alone as a diagnosis for Seiridium canker. The uncontrolled canker over time will destroy the cypress form and eventually cause the trees death. Seiridium canker is usually localized on individual limbs and shows mostly as dead foliage (see attached photo). Disease Symptoms: In many cases, the canker will disfigure and damages trees, most particularly in hedges and screens that are heavily pruned. The limb is usually dry, dead, often discolored, with a sunken or cracked area surrounded by living tissue (see attached photo). In many cases there is a gray discoloration at the point of infection. The foliage dies beyond the canker point to the limb tip. Disease Prevention and Control: Provide adequate space when planting trees to prevent the stress of crowding and to increase the air circulation. Planting at a minimum of 12 to 15 feet between trees may look excessive but will pay off in just a few years. Do not over-fertilize trees and mulch under trees to at least the drip line. These recommendations will minimize stressful water loss and the ever-present competition for water from surrounding plants. as well as potential damage to trees from lawn mowers and string trimmers. Prune away the diseased branches as soon after they appear as possible. Make the pruning cuts 3 to 4 inches below the diseased canker patch. You should always destroy diseased plant parts and try to avoid physical damage to plants. Sanitize pruning tools between each cut by dipping in rubbing alcohol or in a solution of 1 part chlorine bleach to 9 parts water. Chemical control of the fungus has proven to be difficult but some success has been noted with a full-coverage fungicide spray at monthly intervals from April to October.